17 May 2018

12 May 2018

Second video, discussing four topics


Four examples of discussion, about themes surrounding the Oera Linda-book:
(time in video:)
1.
01:00 Alleged suicide of Dr. Ottema and his supposed reason for that; possible motives for cultural establishment to have silenced him and discourage possible followers.
2.
06:05 Theoretical involvement of Joost Halbertsma and Ernst Stadermann in the alleged 19th century creation of the manuscript; some reasons why this is not plausible.
3.
09:34 Wheel-based symbols; why it does not make sense that they were designed by an assumed 19th century forger.
4.
13:08 Plausibility of overseas trade and contacts between Mediterraneans and Northern Europeans, long before our year zero.

Notes may be added here later.

05 May 2018

Video reply about four OLB words

WR.ALDA ~ JRTHA ~ DÉNE (MARKA) ~ KRÉKA (LANDA)


~ ~ ~

 Additional information about ('near and far') Greece / Krékalanda:

Southern Italy used to be called Great-Greece (similar to Great-Britain versus Brittany).

The Griko people (Greek: Γκρίκο), sometimes spelt Grico, Greco in Calabria, and also known as Grecanici, are an ethnic Greek community of Southern Italy.

Note that Γκρίκο transliterated is Gkriko. (Credits for this info to Karel Anker!)



More notes may be added here later.

04 May 2018

WR-ALDA related to Orotalt or Ruldai (and varieties)?

In 2013 I posted on a discussion forum about a possible link between Wralda ('the most ancient', God, world) of Oera Linda and the pre-Islamic Arabian god Orotalt or Ruldai (and varieties). As I think this can be an important clue for future reference, I reorganised the various sources, sorted by year.

1) Thaleia III-8 by Herodotus (440 BCE) and translations

ὀνομάζουσι δὲ τὸν μὲν Διόνυσον Ὀροτάλτ,
τὴν δὲ Οὐρανίην Ἀλιλάτ.


(George Rawlinson, 1860)
Bacchus they call in their language Orotal,
and Urania, Alilat.

(George Campbell Macaulay, 1890)
Now they call Dionysos Orotalt
and Urania they call Alilat.

(Shlomo Felberbaum, 2003)
And they name Dionysus Orotalt
and Urania Alilat.

2) Sources 17th - 19th century

1682 - Curieuse Aenmerckingen der bysonderste Oost en West-Indische Verwonderens-waerdige Dingen, Deel IV, Simon de Vries p. 1023
"By d'Arabiers salfden de Bond-verwanten seven Stenen met haer eygen Bloed; roepende daer by den Urotalt en Alilat: Welcke eenige voor Dionysius en Urania houden" source

c. 1690 - Draft chapters of a treatise on the origin of religion and its corruption, Isaac Newton
"Bacchus was the proper god of the Arabians & therefore their common father. ffor Herodotus (lib 3 initio) tells us Arabes Dionysium quem Vrotalt & Vraniam quam Alilat appellant [id est Bacchum et Venerem] solos Deorum esse arbitrantur: ..." source

1728 - De Diis Germanis, Elias Schedivs, p.157
"Arabes alias, teste Herodot. in Clio, Solem dixerunt Vrotalt, id est, Lucis Deum, itemque Dusarem, vel Daisarem, id est, perlustrantem Deum." source

1741 - Algemeene histori van het begin der wereld af tot den tegenwoordigen tyd toe, Volume 2, translated from English by Kornelis Westerbaen, p.423
"Een hedensdaegsch Schrijver (1) meent, dat d'Arabiërs en Ismaëliten eertijds Bacchus en Urania of Venus in dien tempel dienden: want Herodotus verhaelt, datze geene andere godheden, dan deeze hebben aengebeden, d'eerste van welke zij Urotalt, en de laetste Alilat noemen (2); hoewel andere laeter Schrijvers zeggen, datze ook Jupiter, de zon, maen, en de demons aenbaden (3). Hoe het hiermede gelegen zij, of niet, het is allerwaerschijnlijkst, dat d'altaer en het bosch, van Abraham te Berseba opgerecht (4), d'eerste gelegenheid tot deeze verziering heeft gegeeven, dat die tempel door hem gebouwd is." source

1769 - Maandelyksche berichten uit de andere waereld of de sprekende dooden (February), p.122
"Zo is door den geleerden Calmet aangetoond, dat de Arabiers en Ismaëliten, eertyd Bacchus en Urama of Venus in dien tempel dienden; zo verhaalt ook Herodotus, dat ze geene anderen Godheden dan deeze hebben aangebede, de eerste van welke zy Urotalt, en de laatste Alilat noemden; hoe wel Strabo, een later schryver, verzekerd, dat ze, in vervolg van tyd Jupiter, de Zon, Maan en Demons aanbaden; doch hoe ze aan het verdichtsel zyn gekomen, dat Abraham dien tempel heeft gebouwd, weet mogelyk niemand te zeggen." source

1792 - Bijbel der natuur - Twaalfde deel, Johann Jacob Scheuchzer, vertaling L. Meijer, p.623
Register: "Uranus Urotalt, de Zon. III.1109. IX.657" source

1811 - Buch des Kabus oder Lehren des persischen Königs Kjekjawus für seinen Sohn Ghilan Schach, Kaika'us Ibn-Iskanda, translated by Heinrich F. von Diez, p.211
"Zu Zeiten Hiobs aus Esaus Geschlecht nemlich haben die Araber, wie obgedacht, Gott in der Wahrheit erkannt, und wenn wir die Abfassung dieses Buchs ins Jahr der Welt 2300 oder, wie einige wollen, noch etwas weiter zurück näher an die Zeiten Jacobs setzen, der im Jahre der Welt 2255 starb: so müssen wir urtheilen, dass sie zwölf Jahrhunderte vor Herodot noch im Besitz der unverfälschten Offenbarung gewesen. Wir müssen ferner annehmen, dass sie vom rechten Wege noch nicht abgewichen waren im Jahre der Welt 2952, als die Königin von Saba nach Jerusalem kam, welches 548 Jahre vor Herodot geschehen. Allein zur Zeit des letztem waren die Araber schon Götzendiener geworden, denn dieser Geschichtschreiber, welcher seine Geschichte ums Jahr der Welt 3500 schrieb, folglich 1112 Jahre zuvor, ehe Muhammed zu lehren angefangen, meldet, dass die Araber den Bacchus und die Urania verehrten. Den erstem nennt er mit einem verdorbenen arabischen Worte Urotalt und die letztere heisst er Alitta und Alilat. Urotalt soll wahrscheinlich Utarid (...) seyn, welches sonst Mercurius bedeutet, der vom Stamme Asad verehrt ward ." source

1831 - Geographie der Griechen und Römer aus ihren Schriften dargestellt, Konrad Mannert, p.24-25
"... nennen den Dionysus Urotalt (Ουροταλτ) ... Urotal erklärt er für Erat-allah, Gott des Feuers...
Ob der Gott Urotalt, welchen Herodot so wie die Allita blos dey den nördlichern Arabern hatte kennen lernen, einerley mit der Hauptgottheit der südlichern Länder ist, weiss ich nicht zu sagen. ...
... Sonne und Mond (welches immer noch Urotalt und die Alitta bezeichnen kann), ... Zuverlässig aber wurde Bacchus, welchen Herodot Urotalt nennt, in der Legend von Mecca auch unter dem Namen Dusares oder Dysares verehrt; ..." source

1880 - Das orakelwesen im Alterthume, Franziska Hoffmann, p.20
"Das Bakidische Orakel auf Creta.
Wenn man den Zusammenhang zwischen dem Orient und Griechenland, zwischen dem Mysterien- und dem Orakelwesen festhalten will, so ist es nöthig die Verknüpfung zu kennen, in welcher der orientalische Bakis oder Bacchos zu dem griechischen Apollo stand. Im Anfange hatten die Griechen nur ausländische Götter, welche sie nationalisirten, später durch einheimische ersetzten und deren verschiedene Mythen mit einander verschmolzen. So auch gab es zwei Bacchosgötter. Der zweite Bacchos war Dionysos, Sohn der Semele; der erste war nach Herodot der arabische Gott Ourotalt, dessen Dienst von den Syriern und Phöniziern angenommen worden war, ehe er durch Melampus und Cadmos den Griechen bekannt wurde. Er ist der eigentlich mystische Bacchos, Mittelpunkt der Zagreusmythe, Mittelpunkt der Sabaziusfabel, die mit dem Dienst von Samothrake verknüpft war; von ihm stammen die Eleusinischen Mysterien mit der Jacchosmythe; von ihm stammen die bacchischen Orgien, wobei die Bacchantinnen bekanntlich ein Rehkalb zerrissen und das rohe Fleisch davon assen." source

1892 - The Archaeology of the District - The Finds at the Great Zimbabwe Ruins, J.T.Bent, p.189-191
"... the creative powers of mankind.
A curious confirmation of this is found in the pages of Herodotus (Herod.Bk.III.par.8), who tells us:'The Arabians of all the gods only worshipped Dionysus, whom they called Ourotalt, and Urania;' that is to say, they worshipped the two deities which, in the mind of the father of history, represented in themselves all that was known of the mysteries of creation, pointing to the very earliest period of Arabian cult, prior ro the more refined religious development of the Sabaeo-Himyaritic dynasty, when Sun-worship, veneration for the great luminary which regenerated all animal and vegetable life, superseded the grosser forms of nature-worship, to be itself somewhat superseded or rather incorporated in a worship of all the heavenly luminaries, which developed as a knowledge of astronomy was aquired." source1 ; source2

3) Other sources

wikipedia/Orotalt
"According to the 5th century BCE Greek historian Herodotus, Orotalt was a god of Pre-Islamic Arabia whom he identified with Dionysus [...]
Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions states that Orotalt is a phonetic transcription of the name of the sun god Ruda."

wikipedia/Ruda (deity)
"Ruda is a deity that was of paramount importance in the Arab pantheon of gods worshipped by the North Arabian tribes of pre-Islamic Arabia. [...]
The oldest reference to Ruda is found in the annals of Esarhaddon who ruled over the Assyrian empire from 681 to 669 BC. The name is transliterated into English from the original Akkadian as Ru-ul-da-a-a-ú and he is mentioned among the gods of the Arabs."

The Esarhaddon Prism (Neo-Assyrian, c. 672 BC), Library of Ashurbanipal (found Nineveh, North Iraq 1927) source1 ; source2
Inscription column 4 transliteration(9) aš-šu na-dan ilâni{pl}-su u-ṣal-la-an-ni-ma ri-e-mu ar-ši-šu-ma (10) {ilu}A-tar-sa-ma-a-a-in {ilu}Da-a-a {ilu}Nu-ḫa-a-a (11) {ilu}Ru-ul-da-a-a-u {ilu}A-bi-ri-il-lu (12) {ilu}A-tar-ḳu-ru-ma-a ilâni{pl} ša {am}A-ri-bi (13) an-ḫu-su-nu ud-diš-ma da-na-an {ilu}Aššur bêli-ia (14) u ši-ṭir šumi-ia eli-šu-nu aš-ṭur-ma u-tir-ma ad-din-šu
Translation
(9) For the return of his gods he prayed me and I showed him favour and (10) the gods Atarsamain, Dai, Nuhai, (11) Ruldaiu, Abirillu, (12) Atarkuruma, the gods of the Arabians, (13) their ruined (effigies) I restored and the might of Ashur, my lord, (14) and the writing of my name upon them I wrote and gave them back to him.

wikipedia/Ruldaiu
"Ruldaiu was a god featured in Arab mythology according to the Annals of Sennacherib (eighth century BC). Arabic inscriptions mention a god called Ruda. Herodotus calls him Ortalt."
~
http://nabataea.net/kedar.html (Dan Gibson)
Regarding their religion, Assyrian inscriptions tell us that Sennacherib captured of several Arabian deities in the Kedarite city of Dumah. The chief deity was Atarsamain, or the morning star of heaven. (the counterpart of Mesopotamian Ishtar). The tribal league led by the Kedarites was known as "the confederation of Atarsamain, and their cult was led by a series of queen-priestesses in Dumah. The rest of their pantheon of gods consisted of Dai, Nuhai (Nuhay), Ruldai (Ruda), Abirillu, and Atarquruma. Rock graffiti in the Thamudic language reveals that Ruda was known as the evening star, and Nuhay was the sun-god, and they were worshiped in addition to Atarsamain 'the morning star.' Herodotus, in the fifth century BC identified two deities worshiped among the Arabs, as a fertility god called Orotalt (perhaps Ruda, as identified by Macdonald in North Arabian in the First Millennium BC, 1360), and a sky goddess know as Allat. (Herodotus III,3.) Later Allat became referred to in the masculine form as Allah)

More about Rulaiu / Orotalt, possibly relevant, for later study:

From The Pagan God, Javier Teixidor (1977):




From The Pantheon of Palmyra, Javier Teixidor (1979):




28 April 2018

How did it sound? #7: E and É

One thing that becomes very clear when comparing the two probe texts, is that the copyist has been much less precise writing the letter to Okke than when he copied the primal history, as the E's are sometimes hardly recognisable. It looks like he wrote his intro in a hurry, which is also indicated by inconsistencies in spelling and choice of words (HÀB IK THAM vs. HÀB IK RA; SKRÉVEN vs. SKRÉVVEN).

As for the É and E, there is less mix up than with some of the other vowels, but there is some still, both between E and É, as with other sounds, for example:
SKÉDNIS - SKÍDNIS
KRÉION - KRYEN
ÉTA - YTA
KRODER - KRODAR
MODER - MODAR
etc.
Also, as we already saw, À is often interchangable with E:
ÀFTER / EFTER, -DÀRVA / -DERVA, BÀRN / BERN, THÀT / THET, GÀRS / GERS.


The probe texts have enough examples to give a good impression of how the various words have changed or been preserved in our modern languages:

normal short and unstressed E (as in 'the' or 'written')

verb tenses ending -E (same in modern Dutch):
BÀRDE === (D) baarde, (E) birthed
ERVE === (D arch.) erve, (G) erbe
GLÍANDE === (D) gloeiende, (E) glowing
MAKADE === (D) maakte, (E)made
SKOLDE === (D) zoude, (E) should
SPISDE === (D) spijsde, (E) spised
WROCHTE === (D) wrochtte, (E) wrought

past perfect verb ending -EN (same in modern Dutch):BVNDEN === (D) gebonden, (E) bound
KÉMEN === (D) gekomen, (E) come
SKRÉVEN === (D) geschreven, (E) scribed/written
SVNKEN === (D) gezonken, (E) sunk
VRLÉDEN === (D) verleden (E: past)
WRDEN === (D) geworden (E: become)

adjective ending -E (same in modern Dutch):
ALLE === (D) alle, (E) all
ÀRGE === (D) erge, (G) arge
ÉLE === (D) hele, (E) whole
NIMMERTHE === (E: never)
-TIGOSTE === (D) -tigste, (E) -tiest
TWILIFTE === (D) twaalfde, (E) twelfth
WARME === (D) warme, (E) warm

two male names and other words ending -E:HIDDE === (name)
OKKE === (name)
FÉRSTE === (D) feest, (G) Feier, (E) fest
NE === (French:) ne (negative)
SE === (D) ze, (G) sie (E: they)
SÉLE === (D) ziel, (F) siel, (G) Seele, (E) soul
SKÉDNISE === (D) geschiedenis, (F) skiednis (E: history)
VMBE === (D arch.) omme, (G) um

ending -ER:
ÀFTER === (D) achter, (E) after
(verb)-ER === (G) er (E: he)
FJVWER === (D/G) vier, (F) fjouwer, (E) four
MODER === (D) moeder, (G) Mutter, (E) mother
NIMMER === (D/G) nimmer, (E) never
TOGHATER === (D) dochter, (G) Tochter, (E) daughter

other:EK === (D) elk, (E) each
-ET === (D) het
ERV- === (D) erv-, (G) erb-
HRED === (D) gered, (G) gerettet
-HWERSA
HVNDRED === (D) honderd, (F) hûndert, (E) hundred
KERSTEN === (D/G) Christen, (E) Christian
MÀNNESKA === (D) mensen, (G) Menschen, (E) men (m/f)
OERA === (short for OVER-A/OVIR-A)
SEND === (D) zijn, (G) sind
SEX === (D) zes, (F) seis, (G) sechs, (E) six
THES === (D/G) des (E: of the)
-WERT
WET === (F) wiet, (E) wet

long stressed É (ay/ea/ee/ei/ie)

É has in Dutch often become long ee/ie; in German ei/ee, in English ay/ea; sometimes it has remained e, become a or disappeared:
ALLÉNA === (D) aleen, (G) allein, (E) alone
DÉGUM === (D) dagen, (G) Tage, (E) days
ÉLE === (D) hele, (E) whole
ÉTHLUM === (E: ancestors)
ÉVG === (D) eeuwig, (G) ewig (E: eternally)
FÉRSTE === (D) feest, (G) Feier, (E) feast
HÉTA === (D) hete, (G) heisse, (E) hot
JÉR === (D) jaar, (F) jier, (G) Jahr, (E) year
KÉM- === (D) kwam/-kom-, (G) kam/-komm-, (E) came/come
KRÉION === (D) kregen, (G) kriegen
MANGÉRTA === vero: (D) -geerte
NÉI === (D) na, (F) nei, (G) nach, (E: after)
RÉKNONG === (D) rekening, (G) Rechnung, (E) reckoning
SÉLE === (D) ziel, (F) siel, (G) Seele, (E) soul
SKÉDNISE === (D) geschiedenis, (F) skiednis (E: history)
SKRÉVEN === (D) geschreven, (F) skreaun
THÉR === (D) daar, (G) da, (E) there
TVÉLF (must be TWELF) === (D) twaalf, (F) tolve, (G) zwölf, (E) twelve
TWÉN === (D) twee-, (G) zwei-/zwi-, (E) twin
VRLÉDEN === (D) verleden
WÉI === (D) weg, (F) wei, (G) weg, (E) away
WÉRON === (D/G) waren, (E) were
WÉSA === (D-dialect) wezen (E: be)

=================
Disclaimer: The modern-word examples are never complete and rather serve to give a general idea ~ it would have been interesting to include Scandinavian varieties.

Note: the letter É on itself means water.
ÉWA SÉIT AK. É.LIK WÉTER.LIK. RJUCHT ÀND SLJUCHT
AS WÉTER THAT THRVCH NÉN STORNE.WIND JEFTA AWET OWERS VRSTOREN IS.
WARTH WÉTER VRSTOREN SA WARTH.ET VN.ÉWA. VNRJUCHT.
MEN.ET NÍGTH ÉVG VMBE WITHER ÉWA TO WERTHANDE.
É.LAND === (D) eiland, (E) island, literally water-land (perhaps also used for peninsula)

27 April 2018

How did it sound? #6: I, J, Y and Í

As the other vowels, these letters -- transliterated by me as I, J, Y and Í -- are used far from consequently, but some rules of thumb will be listed.

The I-dot or J must have been like y in 'year' (German/ Dutch: j as in Jahr/ jaar). It is mostly used in the article THJU (the), in personal pronouns HJU (she), HJA (they), HJAM (them), HJARA (their), J (you, also spelled: I), and at the end of verbs (e.g. WÁRJA, WÉJA, FOLGJA).

Other personal pronouns also have an I-sound, for example: IK (I), MY, MIN (my), THIN (your), HI/HY/Y (he), HIM, HIS, (his/her), SIN/SYN (his, their, its), WI/WY (we).

The normal I is also used in articles THI (the), prepositions BI (by, also spelled BÍ or BY), IN, MITH (with), verb IS. Pronunciation will have been like i in is: short, unaccented.

The regular Y, with the spoke pointing up-left, has in many cases become the stretched Dutch 'ij'/'ei' or German 'ei' (this sound does not exist in English but is a bit like ai or eigh or i in 'side'), for example:
FRY ==== (D) vrij, (F) frij, (G) frei, (E) free
BRYN === (D/F) brein, (E) brain
BILYVA (also with Í) === (D) blijven, (F) bliuwe, (G) bleiben
YDEL === (D) ijdel, (F) idel, (G) eitel, (E) idle

However, in many Dutch and German dialects, these vowels are pronounced as a long ee in English free.

The Í with the spoke pointing right-up seems to often have more become a stretched ie in Dutch and German (ee in free or ea in tea):
FLÍ === (D arch.) vlieden, (G) fliehen, (E) flee
VRLÍSA === (D) verliezen, (F) ferlieze, (G) verlieren, (E: loose)
However, also often Dutch 'ij'/'ei' or German 'ei', just like the Y.

It is sometimes a variety of the long É:
SKÍDNIS for SKÉDNIS === (D) geschiedenis, (F) skiednis (E: history).
Or of the J:
LÍAF for LJAF === (D) lief, (F) leaf, (G) lieb, (E: dear).
Or the
I: SÍDE for SIDE === (D) zijde, (G) Seite, (E/F) side

Some more randomly chosen examples:

BINNA === (D/F) binnen
FIFTIGOSTE === (D) vijftigste, (F) fyftichste, (G) fünfzigste, (E) fiftiest
FINDA === (name, meaning:) (D) vinden, (F) fine, (G) finden, (E) find
KRÉION (also: KRYEN) === (D) kregen, (F) krije, (G) kriegen
KWIK === (D) kwiek/kwik, (F) kwyk/kwik, (E) quick
-ISK === (D/G) -isch, -ish
LIF === (D) lijf, (F) liif, (G) leib, (E) life
-LIK === (D) -lijk, (F) -lik, (G) -lich, (E) -like
LINDA
RIP === (D) rijp, (F) ryp, (G) reif, (E) ripe
SPIS- === (D) spijs-, (F) spiis, (G) speis-, (E) spise-
THINGA === (D,F) dingen, (G) Dinge, (E) things
THISSA === (D) deze, (F) dizze, (G) diese, (E) these
THRIA/THRJA === (D) drie, (F) trije, (G) drei, (E) three
TID === (D) tijd, (F) tiid, (G) Zeit, (E) tide
TWILIF- === (D) twaalf, (F) tolve, (G) zwölf, (E) twelve
WÉI === (D/G) weg, (F) wei, (E) away

DJARA === (D) dieren, (G) Tiere (vero: deer, dear)
FJANDA === (D) vijanden, (G) feinde
FJVWER === (D/G) vier, (F) fjouwer, (E) four
JÉR === (D) jaar, (F) jier, (G) Jahr, (E) year
JÉRDE === (D/F) -geerde/-gearde, (G) -gehrte
JESTER === (D) gisteren, (F) juster, (G) gestern, (E) yester-
JETA === (E) yet
JOL === (D) joel, (G) jul, (E) yule
JRTHA === (D) aarde, (F) ierde, (G) Erde, (E) earth
LJAWA === (D) lieve, (F) leave, (G) liebe
LJU(D) === (D) lied-, (F) lju, (G) leut-
NJUGON === (D) negen, (F) njoggen, (G) neun, (E) nine
RJUCHT === (D/G) recht, (F) rjocht, (E) right
SJAN === (D) zien, (F) sjen, (G) sehen, (E) see

-TÍZA === (D) -tijgen/-tichten, (F) -tichtsje
BLÍ(D) === (D) blij(d)-, (F)bliid
DÍWEK === name Dieuwke
DRÍST === (D) driest, (F) dryst
DRÍVA === (D) drijven, (F) driuwe, (G) treiben, (E) drive
FÍAND === (D) vijand, (F) fijân, (G) Feind
FÍL === (D) viel, (F) foel, (G) fiel, (E) fell
FÍRJA === (D) vieren, (F) fiere, (G) feiern
FÍT (also Y) === (E) feet
GÍR === (D/F) gier, (G) Geier
GLÍANDE === (D) gloeiende, (F) gleone, (G) glühend, (E) glowing
HÍR === (D/G) hier, (F) hjir, (E) here
-HÍV === (D) -hief
ÍN- === (D) een, (F) ien, (G) ein, (E) one
ÍSER === (D) ijzer, (F) izer, (G) Eisen, (E) iron
KÍASA === (D) kiezen, (F) kieze, (E) choose
-KLÍWA === (D) -klijven
NÍG- === (D) nijg-, (G) neig-, (E) nigh
NÍTHER === (D) neder, (G) nieder, (E) nether
PAMPÍER === (D/F/G) papier, (E) paper
SKRÍVA === (D) schrijven, (F) skriuwe, (G) schreiben, (E) scribe
SPLÍTON === (D) splijten, (F) spjalte, (G) spalten, (E) split
SWÍRMJA === (D) zwermen, (F) swaarmje/swermje
THAWÍLA === (D) terwijl, (F) wylst, (G) weil, (E) while

BYLD === (D) beeld, (F) byld, (G) Bild
HLY === (D) luwte, (F) lijte, (G/E) Lee
HYR- === (D) her-/heir-, (G) Heer- (army)
KNY (also Í) === (vero:) (D/G) knie, (E) knee

KY === (F) kij (cows)
LYDA === (D) lijden, (F) lije, (G) leiden
NY === (D) nieuw, (F) nij, (G) neu, (E) new
SYTJA === name Sijtje
VRFYA === (D) verfoeien, (F) ferfije
VRSLYNNA === (D) verslinden

YTA === (D) eten, (F) ite, (G) essen, (E) eat

25 April 2018

How did it sound? #5: U varieties

The U with dot was transliterated by me as Û; most modern Dutch cognates are spelled with "ui", a sound that is not used in German or English (pron. like French fauteuil).
The less common U with one spoke in the middle was transliterated by me as Ü; most modern Dutch cognates are spelled with "eu", a sound not used in English, but similar to the Nordic "ø" or German "ö".

Like with the other vowels, the use is in many cases not consequent. For example, UT / ÛT, BÛTA / BUTA, BÛRA / BÜRA, FÛL / FÜL etc.

The most common word with Ü is the verb MÜGE (to may). Common words with Û are STJÛRAR (steersmen or navigators) and THÛSAND (thousand). Most common use of the regular U is in HJU (she), THJU (the), TILTHJU (so that), in plurals ending -UM, and verbs ending -UN or -UM. It is remarkable that in the modern versions of the words with the regular U, the sound has often changed into totally different directions.

The probe texts had too few examples, so I made lists below, taken from the whole text. The list with the regular U is not complete, but the other two lists are, more or less. They are meant to give an idea of how the modern versions of the words (if applicable) are.


With normal U, besides HJU, THJU, TILTHJU, plurals -UM and verbs -UN, -UM: a short u as in luck:
(in words with more syllables ending -UR: unstressed -er:)
ADDUR === (D/E) adder
ALGÁDUR === (archaic D) altegader, allegaar, (E) altogether (1x -ER)
SÉKUR === (D) zeker, (D) sicher, (E) sure
(other, accentuated:)
BURCH === (D) burcht, (G) Burg
BUTA (also Û) === (D) buiten, (F) bûten
BUWGJA === (D) buigen, (G) biegen
DUBBEL === (D) dubbel, (F) dûbel, (G) doppelt, (E) double
DUN === (D) duin, (F) dún, (G) Düne, (E) dune
FJUR === (D) vuur, (F) fjoer, (G) Feuer, (E) fire
FJUWER vier === (D/G) vier, (F) fjouwer, (E) four
FLUX === (D) vlug, (F) fluch
HUS (also Û) === (D) huis, (G) Hause, (E) house
KRUPA === (D) kruipen, (E) creep
LJUD === (D) lieden, (G) leute
LUK === (D) geluk, (F) lok, (E) luck
LUST- === (D/E) lust
NJUGON (also V) === (D) negen, (F) njoggen, (G) neun, (E) nine
RJUCHT === (D/G) recht, (F) rjocht, (E) right
RUN === (D) ren-, (F) run/rin-, (G) renn-/rann-, (E) run/ran
SJUGUN/-ON === (D) zeven, (G) sieben, (E) seven
SMUK- === (D) smuk-, (D) schmuck
STURF === (D) stierf/storf, (G) starb/storb
SUSTER === (D) zuster, (G) Schwester, (E) sister
THRJU === (D) drie, (G) drei, (E) three
UT (also Û) === (D) uit, (F) út, (G) aus, (E) out

With Û (U-dot): a long ui as in French fauteuil:
BISLÛTA === (D) besluiten
BJÛSTRE === (D) bijster
-BRÛDA === (D) bruiden/bruien
BRÛWSENDE === (D) bruisende
BÛDA === (D) buidel, (G) Beutel
BÛGJA === (D) buigen
BÛTA === (D) buiten (also U)
BÛRA === (D) beuren (also Ü)
BÛRA === (D) buren
BÛRT === (D) buurt
DJÛRA
FÛL === (D) veel (also Ü)
GÁDÛRAD
GRÛSICH
GRÛWEL
GÛLDE === (D) huilde
HLÛD === (D) luid
HÛD === (D) huid
HÛNING === (D) honing (mostly Ü)
HÛS === (D) huis (also U)
JÛWGADE === (D) juichten
KRÛDON === (D) kruiden
LJÛCHT (mostly LJUCHT)
LJÛD.GÉRT (mostly LJUD)
LÛD === (D) luid
MÛS === (D) muis
SKÛRUM
SMÛGRIGE === (D) smuigerig
STJÛRAR === (D) sturen
STÛT === (D) stuit
SÛD- === (D) zuid
SÛGANE === (D) zuigen
THJÛSTER === (D) duister
THÛSOND === (D) duizend
TJÛGANDE === (D) betuigend
TRÛLED
ÛLYSUS
ÛT (also U) === (D) uit, (F) út, (G) aus, (E) out
VRTJÛGAD === (D) overtuigd
WÁKENDÛM (exception, mostly -DOM)

With Ü (U-spoke): a long eu as in German Köln:
BÜR- (also Û) === (D) beuren
DÜGED === (D) deugd, (G) Tugend
DÜRE === (D) deur, (F) doar, (G) Tür, (E) door
FRÜ === (D) vreugde, (G) Freude
FRÜCHDA === (D) vruchten/vreugde, (G) Früchte/Freude
FÜGEL === (D/G) vogel
FÜL === (D) veel (also Û, dialect veul), (G) viel
FÜR === (D) voor (exception, mostly FÁR), (G) für
GÜR === (D) geur
HÜGJA === (D) heugen
HÜNING (1x Û) === (D) honing, (F) huning, (G) Honig, (E) honey
JÜGED === (D) jeugd, (G) Jugend
MÜGE/-A/-ON === (D) mogen, (E) may
SIN.TÜGA === (D) zintuigen
SÜMER (1x) === (D) zomer, (F) simmer, (G) Sommer, (E) summer
TÜNIS === (D) name Teunis
TÜNTJA === (D) name Teuntje